“一边……一边……” is often used in oral Chinese. It is used to express those two actions that are going on simultaneously or do two things during the same period of time. “一” can be omitted.
Note that the subject needs to be put before “一边.”
他（一）边吃饭，（一）边看电视。(Tā (yī) biān chīfàn, (yī) biān kàn diànshì.) He was eating while watching TV.
我（一）边学日语，（一）边学汉语。(Wǒ (yī) biān xué rìyǔ,(yī) biān xué hànyǔ.) I am studying Japanese and Chinese at the same time.
Note that when it’s not the same subject, “一” cannot be omitted.
老师一边读课文，学生一边记笔记。(Lǎoshī yībiān dú kèwén, xuéshēng yībiān jì bǐjì.) The teacher reads the text while the students take notes.
“一边” can also function as a noun, which means “on one side” and “by the side of ……”.
照片上妈妈的一边站着她哥哥，一边站着她弟弟。(Zhàopiàn shàng māma de yībiān zhànzhe tā gēge, yībiān zhànzhe tā dìdi.) In the photo, the mother is standing with her brother on one side and her brother on the other.
“一面……一面……” is often used in written Chinese. It is used to express that two actions are going on simultaneously, or do two things during the same period of time.
他一面读书，一面做生意。(Tā yīmiàn dúshū, yīmiàn zuò shēngyì.) While he is studying, he is doing business at the same time.
“一面” can be used as a noun that means “one side of something.”
这本书一面是字，一面是画。(Zhè běn shū yīmiàn shì zì, yīmiàn shì huà.) This book has words on one side and pictures on the other.
“又……又……” can be used to express two events or situations that happen or coexist at the same time. Both A and B can be adjectives, verbs, or clauses.
这个西瓜又大又圆。(Zhège xīguā yòu dà yòu yuán.) This watermelon is big and round.
他在家里又哭又笑，不知道发生了什么。(Tā zài jiālǐ yòu kū yòu xiào, bù zhīdào fāshēngle shénme.) He was crying and laughing at home, not knowing what happened.
你又是我的好老师，又是我的好朋友。(Nǐ yòu shì wǒ de hǎo lǎoshī, yòu shì wǒ de hǎo péngyǒu.) You are my good teacher and my good friend.
“又……又……” cab be used to express when two aspects make a paradoxical pair.
我又想去学校又想在家睡觉。(Wǒ yòu xiǎng qù xuéxiào yòu xiǎng zàijiā shuìjiào.) I want to go to school and sleep at home.
我又想念他又害怕见到他。(Wǒ yòu xiǎngniàn tā yòu hàipà jiàn dào tā.) I miss him again and I am afraid to see him.
Note that it’s often used in clauses with the same subject.
“因为……，所以……” is mainly used to answer the question “why”. The reason follows “因为”, and the result follows “所以”. In this pattern, either “因为” or “所以” is optional.
因为 + reason, 所以 + result
因为他喜欢中国文化，所以学习汉语。(Yīnwèi tā xǐhuān Zhōngguó wénhuà, suǒyǐ xuéxí hànyǔ.) Because he likes Chinese culture, he learns Chinese.
因为下雨，所以我们没去超市。(Yīnwèi xià yǔ, suǒyǐ wǒmen méi qù chāoshì.) We didn’t go to the supermarket because of rain.
If the subjects of the two clauses are the same, the subject can be put either in the first clause or the second clause. Note that if there is a subject in the second clause, it has to be put after “所以.”
I didn’t have breakfast with my family because I got up too early.
我因为起得太早了，所以没和家人一起吃早餐。(Wǒ yīnwèi qǐ dé tài zǎole, suǒyǐ méi hé jiārén yīqǐ chī zǎocān.)
因为我起得太早了，所以没和家人一起吃早餐。(Yīnwèi wǒ qǐ dé tài zǎole, suǒyǐ méi hé jiārén yīqǐ chī zǎocān.)
因为起得太早了，所以我没和家人一起吃早餐。(Yīnwèi qǐ dé tài zǎole, suǒyǐ wǒ méi hé jiārén yīqǐ chī zǎocān.)
“一……就……” indicates two actions occur one by one in a very short time. A certain condition will surely lead to a certain result. The action after “就” occurs right after the action after “一” even without any pause.
Subject + 一 + action 1 + 就 + action 2
哥哥一回家就看电视。(Gēge yī huí jiā jiù kàn diànshì.) The elder brother watches TV as soon as he gets home.
Subject 1 + 一 + action 1 + Subject 2 + 就 + action 2
你一下班，我就给你打电话。(Nǐ yī xiàbān, wǒ jiù gěi nǐ dǎ diànhuà.) I’ll call you once you get off work.
“一” can also follow the condition, and “就” follows the corresponding result.
一 + condition + 就 + result
我一紧张就脸红。(Wǒ yī jǐnzhāng jiù liǎnhóng.) I blush when I get nervous.
“不但……而且……”, the clause follows “而且” usually expresses a further meaning of the clause after “不但”. “Not only……but also……”.
Subject + 不但 …… 而且……
Note that if it’s the same subject, it should be put before “不但.”
我不但会跳舞，而且会唱歌。(Wǒ búdàn huì tiàowǔ, ěrqiě huì chànɡɡē.) I can not only dance, but also sing.
这个孩子不但会说汉语，而且还会写汉字。(Zhège háizi bùdàn huì shuō hànyǔ, érqiě hái huì xiě hànzì.) This child can not only speak Chinese, but also write Chinese characters.
不但 + Subject 1 …… + 而且 + Subject 2 ……
Note that if there are different subjects of the two clauses, they should be put after “不但” and “而且”.
不但我喜欢她，而且我的好朋友也喜欢她。(Búdàn wǒ xǐhuɑn tā, ěrqiě wǒ de hǎo pénɡyou yě xǐhuɑn tā.) Not only I like her, but my good friends also like her.
不但饭做好了，而且外卖也都送来了。(Bùdàn fàn zuò hǎole, érqiě wàimài yě dōu sòng láile.) Not only was the meal ready, but the takeaway was also delivered.
“如果……就……” indicates a hypothesis compound sentence, “if……, then……”. The clause after “如果” is the hypothesis, and the clause after “就” is the corresponding result. In oral Chinese, “如果” or “就” can be omitted.
When it’s the same subject, in the second clause, the subject must be put before “就.” Sometimes in certain contexts, the subject could be omitted.
如果……, (Subject) + 就……
如果你想喝果汁，你就自己拿。(Rúɡuǒ nǐ xiǎnɡ hē ɡuǒzhī, nǐ jiù zìjǐ ná.) If you want to drink juice, you take it yourself.
如果走累了，我们就在这里休息一下。(Rúguǒ zǒu lèile, wǒmen jiù zài zhèlǐ xiūxi yīxià.) If we are tired from walking, we will rest here.
When there are different subjects, note that subject 2 must precede “就”.
如果 + Subject 1……, Subject 2 + 就……
如果你通过HSK5级，我就请你吃饭。(Rúɡuǒ nǐ tōnɡɡuò HSK5 jí, wǒ jiù qǐnɡ nǐ chīfàn.) If you pass HSK Level 5, I will treat you to dinner.
如果老师突然来了，你就马上告诉我。(Rúguǒ lǎoshī tūrán láile, nǐ jiù mǎshàng gàosù wǒ.) If the teacher comes suddenly, you tell me right away.
……的话，(subject) + 就……
Note that it has the same meaning and use as “如果……的话，就……” or “……的话，就……”. In this case, “的话” is put at the end of the first clause, which also means “if”. “的话” or “就” can also be omitted.
明天下雨的话，我们就不去学校了。(Míngtiān xià yǔ dehuà, wǒmen jiù bù qù xuéxiàole.) If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go to school.
他不去学校的话，老师就要生气了。(Tā bù qù xuéxiào dehuà, lǎoshī jiù yào shēngqìle.) If he doesn’t go to school, the teacher will be angry.
想哭的话，你就哭吧！(Xiǎng kū dehuà, nǐ jiù kū ba!) If you want to cry, just cry!
Note that if there is a subject in the second clause, it needs to be put before 就.
“只要A, 就B” indicates that as long as A happens, B will always happen. This is a sufficient condition, which means A is one reliable way to cause the consequence B. Just like “as long as … then …” in English.
只要你想吃，我就给你买。(Zhǐyào nǐ xiǎng chī, wǒ jiù gěi nǐ mǎi.) As long as you want to eat, I will buy it for you.
只要不下雨，我就和你去商场。(Zhǐyào bùxià yǔ, wǒ jiù hé nǐ qù shāngchǎng.) As long as it doesn’t rain, I will go to the mall with you.
只要你愿意，我们就每天一起吃饭。(Zhǐyào nǐ yuànyì, wǒmen jiù měitiān yīqǐ chīfàn.) We eat together every day as long as you want.
“虽然……，但是/可是……” means “although……, but……”. This structure indicates that although the former clause is true, there is still an adverse reaction in the latter clause. “但是” and “可是” are interchangeable.
Note that, unlike in English, “但是” or “可是” can not be omitted.
虽然 + Subject 1 + Predicate 1, 但是/可是 + Subject 2 + Predicate 2
虽然她很聪明，但是她不喜欢学习，考试还是不好。(Suīrán tā hěn cōngmíng, dànshì tā bù xǐhuān xuéxí, kǎoshì háishì bù hǎo.) Although she is very smart, she doesn’t like studying and the exam is still not good.
虽然你来晚了，可是什么都没错过。(Suīrán nǐ lái wǎnle, kěshì shénme dōu méi cuòguò.) Although you were late, you didn’t miss anything.
Subject + 虽然 + Predicate 1， 但是/可是 + Predicate 2
这件衣服虽然有点儿贵，但是非常漂亮。(Zhè jiàn yīfú suīrán yǒudiǎn er guì, dànshì fēicháng piàoliang.) Although this dress is a little expensive, it is very beautiful.
这个人虽然经常迟到，可是工作能力很强。(Zhège rén suīrán jīngcháng chídào, kěshì gōngzuò nénglì hěn qiáng.) Although this person is often late, he has a strong working ability.
This pattern is also an adversative compound sentence. The first clause states a fact, the second clause indicates a turn despite the situation.
Subject 1 + Predicate 1, 不过 + Subject 2 + Predicate 2
天气不好，不过我还是想去公园跑步。(Suīrán tiānqì bù hǎo, bùguò wǒ háishì xiǎng qù gōngyuán pǎobù.) Although the weather is bad, I still want to go for a run in the park.
这个学校不大，不过老师们都很棒。(Zhège xuéxiào bù dà, bùguò lǎoshīmen dōu hěn bàng.) The school is not big, but the teachers are great.
Subject + Predicate 1，不过 + Predicate 2
这个城市很小，不过很方便。(Zhège chéngshì hěn xiǎo, bùguò hěn fāngbiàn.) The city is small but very convenient.
我的手机不贵，不过拍照很漂亮。(Wǒ de shǒujī bù guì, bùguò pāizhào hěn piàoliang.) My phone is not expensive, but it takes beautiful pictures.
“先……，再/然后……” means “first……, then……”. It’s used for events that happen in sequence.
Subject + 先 + Predicate 1， 再/然后 + Predicate 2
我下班会先去买菜，然后回家做饭。(Wǒ xiàbān huì xiān qù mǎi cài, ránhòu huí jiā zuò fàn.) I will go shopping for groceries after getting off work and then go home to cook.
你先写作业，再出去玩。(Nǐ xiān xiě zuòyè, zài chūqù wán.) You do your homework first, and then go out to play.
Subject 1 + 先 + Predicate 1，然后 + Subject 2 + 再 + Predicte 2
这次出差，我们先去北京，然后你们再去成都。(Zhè cì chūchāi, wǒmen xiān qù běijīng, ránhòu nǐmen zài qù chéngdū.) On this business trip, we will go to Beijing first, and then you will go to Chengdu.
你先说你的想法，然后我再说我的想法，好吗？(nǐ xiān shuō nǐ de xiǎngfǎ, ránhòu wǒ zàishuō wǒ de xiǎngfǎ, hǎo ma?) You state your thoughts first, and then I’ll state mine, okay?
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