Pinyin Practice

Pinyin syllables are constructed with a consonant, a vowel, and a tone. The consonant is called the Pinyin Initial (声母/shēngmǔ/) , and the vowel (韵母/yùnmǔ/) is called the Pinyin Final. There are 21 initials (and 2 special initials), 38 finals (including primary single finals and compound finals), and 4 tones (4 basic tones and 1 light tone) in total.

Pinyin Initials

b p

b [b], p [p‘]

m f

m [m], f [f]

d t

d [t], t [t‘]

n l

n [n], l [l]

r l

r [ʐ] , l [l]

g k h

g [k], k [k‘], h [x]

j q x

j [t ɕ], q [t ɕ‘], x [ɕ]

z c s

z[ts], c[ts‘], s [s]

zh ch sh

zh [tʂ], ch [tʂ‘], sh [ʂ]

Pinyin Finals

Primary Finals

a [a], o [o], e [ɤ] , i [i], u [u], ü [y]

Compound Finals

er [ər], ai [ai], ei [ei], ao [au], ou [ou] an [an], en [ən], in [in] ang [aŋ], eng [əŋ], ing [iŋ], ong [uŋ]......

The Tones

Basic Tones and Rules

There are four basic tones and an additional light tone in Chinese language.

The Tone Sandhi of “一”

一 as “yī”. 一 as “yì”. 一 as “yí”

The Tone Sandhi of “不”

不 as “bù”. 不 as “bú”

Spelling rules

The Special Spelling Rules

Spelling rules about “i”, “u”, “ü”, “iou”, “uei”, “uen”.