08. 是(shì) vs 有(yǒu) vs 在(zài)

是(shì) vs 有(yǒu) vs 在(zài)

 

 

是 (shì)

  • 是 sentence is a determinative sentence with “是”, indicating what someone or something equals or belongs to.

e.g.

老师。(Tā shì lǎoshī.) She is a teacher.

我爸爸。(Tā shì wǒ bàba.) He is my father.     

  • 是 is used to illustrate the distinguishing feature or emphasize certain information. The pattern “是……的” is often used.

e.g.

A:你的花什么颜色?(Nǐ de huā shì shénme yánsè de?) What color are your flowers?

B:我的花白色。(Wǒ de huā shì báisè de.) My flowers are white.

 

A:你什么时候开始学习汉语?(Nǐ shì shénme shíhòu kāishǐ xuéxí hànyǔ de?) When did you start learning Chinese?

B: 我去年开始学习汉语。(Wǒ shì qùnián kāishǐ xuéxí hànyǔ de.) I started learning Chinese last year.

  • 是 sentence can be used to indicate the existence of something or someone.

e.g.

公司前面一个公园。(Gōngsī qiánmiàn shì yīgè gōngyuán.) In front of the company is a park.

你看!照片上,我的左边一个美国人,右边一个日本人。(Nǐ kàn! Zhàopiàn shàng, wǒ de zuǒbiān shì yīgè Měiguó rén, yòubiān shì yīgè Rìběn rén.) Look! In the photo, there is an American on my left side and a Japanese on my right side.

  • The negative form: + .

e.g.

老师。(Tā búshì lǎoshī.) She is not a teacher.

我的花白色的。(Wǒ de huā búshì báisè de.) My flowers are not white.

公司前面一个公园。(Gōngsī qiánmiàn búshì yīgè gōngyuán.) In front of the company is not a park.

有 (yǒu)

  • 有 can be used to express possession.

Subject + + object.

e.g.

一个哥哥。(Tā yǒu yīgè gēge.) She has an older brother.

三个公司。(Wǒ yǒusān gè gōngsī.) I have three companies.

时间吗?(Nǐ yǒu shíjiān ma?) Do you have the time?

  • 有 can be used to express existence.

Place + + object.

e.g.

门口两个人。(Ménkǒu yǒu liǎng gèrén.) There are two people at the door.

超市旁边个学校。(Chāoshì pángbiān yǒu gè xuéxiào.) There is a school next to the supermarket.

家里三个卫生间。(Jiā lǐ yǒusān gè wèishēngjiān.) There are three bathrooms in the house.

  • The negative form: 没 + 有. 有 could be omitted in negation sentences.

e.g.

没(有)时间。(Wǒ méi (yǒu) shíjiān.) I do not have time.

超市旁边没(有)学校。(Chāoshì pángbiān méi (yǒu) xuéxiào.) There is no school near the supermarket.

 

在 (zài)

  • 在 as a verb. When it is followed by a word of locality and acts as the predicate of a sentence, it indicates the location of somebody or something.

e.g.

我的同学学校。(Wǒ de tóngxué zài xuéxiào.) My classmate is at school.

。(Wǒ zài jiā.) I am home.

妈妈后面。(Māma zài hòumiàn.) Mother is behind.

 

  • 在 as a preposition. It is used before a word of the locality to introduce the place where an action or behaviour takes place.

e.g.

我的同学学校打篮球。(Wǒ de tóngxué zài xuéxiào dǎ lánqiú.) My classmates play basketball at school.

看书。(Wǒ zàijiā kànshū.) I read at home.

妈妈后面跑步。(Māma zài hòumiàn pǎobù.) Mother is running behind.

  • 在 as a preposition. It is used to suggest an action is in progress at a certain time.

在……(呢)

e.g.

看书(呢)。(Wǒ zài kàn shū ne.)I’m reading.

他们工作(呢)。(Tāmen zài ɡōnɡzuò ne.) They are working.

干什么(呢)?(Nǐ zài ɡàn shénme ne?) What are you doing?

我叫大卫,我1英国人。我家2四口人,他们3:爸爸、妈妈、姐姐和我。我爸爸4老师,我妈妈5医生。我今年上小学,6学汉语。现在爸爸7看书,妈妈8跑步,姐姐9家。我想看电视,但是(but)我10时间,因为我要学习。
(Wǒ jiào Dàwèi, wǒ _1_ Yīnɡɡuó rén. Wǒ jiā _2_ sì kǒu rén, tāmen _3_ : bàbɑ, māmɑ, jiějie hé wǒ. Wǒ bàbɑ _4_ lǎoshī, wǒ māmɑ _5_ yīshenɡ. Wǒ jīnnián shànɡ xiǎoxué, _6_ xué Hànyǔ. Xiànzài bàbɑ _7_ kàn shū, māmɑ _8_ pǎobù, jiějie _9_ jiā. Wǒ xiǎnɡ kàn diànshì, dànshì wǒ _10_ shíjiān, yīnwèi wǒ yào xuéxí.)


 

2 Responses

  1. I am just beginning to feel my way around this program and I like its straightforwardness and clarity, without attempting to entertain: just teach. I got involved with this program primarily because I feel that unless I read, I forget the characters I learn. I finally realized that in some way one has to keep using the characters learnt and reading is a very good way to do so.
    I found the program even better than I thought it was before I subscribed.

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Beginner Grammar

 

  • Numbers – 数字
  • Money – 钱
  • Expressions about Time – 时间
  • Expressions about Dates and Week – 日期
  • 二(èr) vs 两(liǎng)
  • 几(jǐ) vs 多少(duō shǎo)
  • 不(bù) vs 没(méi)
  • 是(shì) vs 有(yǒu) vs 在(zài)
  • 是…的 (shì…de)
  • 的(de) vs 地(de)
  • 会(huì) vs 能(néng)
  • Wh-question: Interrogative Questions – 疑问句
  • 能(néng) vs 可以(kěyǐ)
  • 了(le)
  • 了(le) vs 过(guò)
  • 一点儿(yìdiǎnr) vs 有点儿(yǒudiǎnr)
  • 吗(ma) vs 呢(ne) vs 吧(ba)
  • 想(xiǎng) vs 要(yào) vs 想要(xiǎngyào)
  • 正在(zhèngzài) vs 正(zhèng) vs 在(zài)
  • 要/快/快要/就要……了(yào/kuài/kuàiyào/jiùyào……le)
  • 着(zhe)
  • Existential Sentences (1) – 存现句 (1)
  • The Verb Reduplication – 动词重叠
  • The Adjective Reduplication – 形容词重叠
  • 从(cóng) vs 离(lí)
  • 给(gěi)
  • Double Objects Sentences – 双宾语句
  • Compound Sentences Collection (1) – 复句 (1)
  • 还是(háishì) vs 或者(huòzhě)
  • 应该(yīnggāi) vs 该(gāi)
  • 朝(cháo) vs 向(xiàng) vs 往(wǎng)
  • 全(quán) vs 都(dōu)
  • 刚刚(gānggāng) vs 刚才(gāngcái) vs 刚(gāng)
  • 才(cái) vs 就(jiù)
  • Classifiers for beginners (1) – 量词 (1)
  • Classifiers for beginners (2) – 量词 (2)
  • Classifiers for beginners (3) – 量词 (3)
  • Comparative Sentences (1) – 比较句 (1)
  • Comparative Sentences (2) – 比较句 (2)
  • Comparative Sentences (3) – 比较句 (3)
  • Comparative Sentences (4) – 比较句 (4)
  • The Complement of Result (1) – 结果补语 (1)
  • Simple Directional Complement (1) – 简单趋向补语 (1)
  • The State Complement (1) – 状态补语 (1)
  • The Quantitative Complement (1) – 数量补语 (1)

Intermediate grammar

Coming soon (expected in Nov 2021)

Advanced grammar

Coming soon (expected in Jan 2022)